To be honestly, after I saw Diane Abbott’s speech video, I realised that the harm of ‘hated speech’ online is much more serious than I thought. Most of uncontrolled abused common with the excuse of speech freedom. The reason why irresponsible speech can harm people badly, Warburton(2009) has gave us some reasonable analysis, there are four features that may cause danger due to the confusion of speech freedom. Firstly, anonymity identity online creates an environment which can common hated speech irresponsibly. Secondly, the weak censorship mechanism is not capable of control lack-quality speech spread competely. Thirdly, millions of potential audiences means the magnification of harms from hated speech. The fourth is the accumulation of anti-society groups. Which means that abuse of hated speech online will not be harmless because of distance.
Diane Juliet Abbott is the first black British politician as a member of parliament Hackney North and Stoke Newington, and also a female. She is not the only female politicians victim. Most British parliamentarians have experienced “intrusive or aggressive behavior”, and more than half of female parliamentarians report that they have suffered physically threat(Krook, 2017). However we should know that women had to suffer abused and hostility in 19th century because winning rights for vote, but it is not acceptable in 21st century anymore(Elgot, 2018). Females belong in to politics does not need any more suspicious.
Fortunately, the actors of regional and national levels are increasingly aware of violence and harassment against female politicians. For example, the United Nations General Assembly required in Resolution 66/130 that no more tolerance for abuse against female candidates in 2011; In 2015, the states who signed the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women accordingly involved to endorse a Declaration on Political Harassment and Violence against Women In 2017, French Senate amended the regulation of removing politicians who hold their affairs unqualified due to sexual or psychological harassment(Krook, 2017). Everyone has responsible to improve this society which can start from using words politely online.
Most of collective action aims advocating citizens’ idea of particular political implement change, such as collective bargaining or demonstrations. This article will mainly discuss digital researchers’ attitude on the use of social media for collective action, and analysis will finally prove that social media development is not capable of shaking the result of collective action.
In terms of Shirky’s(2011) report, it is claimed that digital media promote a more effective platform to communicate, because of the reduction of transaction cost and gathering obstacles, the speed of gathering a collective action becomes more rapid. Much more new coordinated forms are created due to social media convenience, that impacts world positively because citizens gain more freedom to announce their advocacies in order to achieve social movements.
Nevertheless, it is just partly view to social media influence on collective action in a good way. Morozov (2011, quoted by Gerbaudo, 2012) pointed out clearly in his book The Net delusion, that digital media platforms like Twitter or Facebook are mostly used for entertainment rather than political participation action. This kind of critiques can be summed up as ‘ Revolution will not be tweeted'(Gerbaudo, 2012). Actually, the opposite side mostly focus on the possible result of collective action to justify the its efficiency on social media.
In addition, there is an example can explain the existence of these critical views. BBC published an article entitled ‘What is the point of e-petitions?‘, which is not optimistic about this collective action. It shows that e-petition unlikely will be established in terms of parliamentary processes and legislation. Because very tight schedule the House of Commons, the time cannot be completely used to discuss the electronic petition issue. Members of the House of Commons have their topic want to put on the counter as well. Even if it can be discussed in the parliament, it is very difficult to legislate, and unfortunately, the discussion result cannot be enforced by the government as well. To conclude, the result of collective action will not be as succeed as its executing progress.
This article will mainly discuss copyleft licensing and the effect on current online creative environment. First the debate between copyleft and copyright perspectives will be discussed, which is based on a analysis of Wikipedia copyright protection regulation development. Secondly, I will prove that there is a inseparable relationship between two different perspectives in order to achieve a fair environment that both encourage creativity and copyright protection.
The debates about implementation of copyright protecting on Wikipedia continued for a long while. Because printing, downloading or even creating a collection book based on the platform information are encouraged by Wikipedia. In that case a collective creation based on Wikipedia was suspected that the ownership of copyright can not be ensured, because the act of contribution on Wikipedia are normally seen as abandonment of the authorship. For example, Simone(2014) pointed out that Wikipedia’s “free encyclopaedia” idealism is just for the platform to earn greater benefit at all. However, some of different perspective think that copyright law has become a harmful force has weakened creativity rather than encouraged it. According to Frantsvog’s (2012) report claim that the Copyleft campaign is to rebalance intellectual property law to construct a pure and Jeffersonian country.
In fact, copyleft licences has greatly been adopted to balance the strifes about copyright that may appear in the process of collective creativity. Copyleft licences have helped Wikipedia to built a better mechanism which can provide contributors(the authors) a chance of renouncing or protecting the copyright ownership (Simone, 2014). In conclusion, copyleft licensing is not essentially different with copyright, both are designed to protect the ability to copy, modify and distribute the work. The difference is the emphasis on ownership. The author is protected under copyright license, and the goal of Copyleft license is to place these rights in the hands of the public (Stallman, 1999).
Pursing higher state transparency will never stop.In order to achieve a more reliable political environment, people don’t want to be blind political followers anymore. This article will mainly argue that peoples’ willingness of pursuing truth will not be changed because of long-time suppression, the effect Wikileak brings to Egypt will be the key example to analyse. Basically, transparent political mechanism starts from freely accessible governmental information. According to OECD(2019) Open Government Data promote government transparency, innovation and subjective censoring manchenism.
There is an example of Egypt shows that the hidden information will only cause louder support for freedom. Al Jazeera, which is an independent Lebanese paper, started their leaking experiment after Wikileak release the hidden diplomatic cables inside Arab. AI Jazzera engaged reporting “The Palestine Papers”, 1600 negotiated documents in Arab countries. It was a significant transform for Arab media– A major Arab publication involves reporting extraordinary political privacy, the same situation had never happened since 1986. The Wikileak largely changed the zeitgeist of citizens. As Journalist Zouhair(2010, quoted in York, 2013) states, leaked document experiment changed people’s notion of sovereignty, which positively promotes their attitudes towards state transparency. After brutality of the Egyptian government was exposed( Egypt’s leader successor Omar Suleiman was reported his engagement of CIA’s extraordinary rendition plan), in 2012, the draft of Freedom of Information Act to the People’s Assembly was passed by Egypt’s lower parliament. It proposed the responsibilities of governmental and private organisation publish essential information periodically. The progress to establish the draft spent no more than two months.
These leaked information notice people that see what government want to show can not achieve information freedom. However, people will finally aware that they owns the rights to require Open Government Data. Brevini (2013) believes that the transparency movement will be globally widespread, silence can not exchange for freedom, we need to believe people’s right to know.
Are you happy with the individualised advertisement web pages recommended? Are you also full of anxiety with exploring personal data? For example, Google knows much about you–where you have been, your preferred application, quotidian entertainment, shopping habits… Moreover, google chrome can analyse your own attractive, and collaborating with Youtube. Thus you are always easily attracted in few second before your targeted film starts.As Kennedy (2016) reported in her book, that there are some kinds of data mining is becoming ordinary– ‘to refer to the everyday-ness, the commonplace-ness and the ubiquity of social media data mining’. Therefore the advantages of individual marketing lead by big data collection should not be ignored.
Companies can analyse and target every potential consumer from big data, to design personalised advertising recommendations. This makes advertising content and smart associations conform to every consumer’s situation, enabling an efficient shopping experience. For example, kraft and IBM collaborated to collect reflection from customers about the suggestion of Australian ‘national food’ Vegemite, which is also owned by Kraft. The results of the analysis are hugely unexpected, what consumers care about is not the taste and packaging that the merchant initially thought. Preferably, the report shows three main concerns of consumers: health, vegetarianism and food safety. In the discussion about health, a vitamin B complex known as folic acid was frequently mentioned, because folic acid is essential for pregnant women, so Kraft opened the market for pregnant women (Jones & Kraft, 2004).
All in all, in the current big data era, companies can target costumers and design a clever individualised advertisement, which determined a necessary extent of data-driven marketing. At the same time, customers should be the attention of their information safety while enjoying the convenience big data brought.